COVID-19

CarboMet – COVID-19 – Links to Papers

CarboMet has compiled a list of glycan related COVID papers published by the glycoscience community in Europe. The aim of this page is to highlight the groundbreaking research in glycoscience and facilitate networking and potential collaboration between research groups and industry. The search function (Ctrl+F or Cmd+F) can be used to identify papers by topic, application, and by specific keywords such as ‘sialic acid’ or ‘lectin’.

PAPER
SUMMARY
The study used glycan microarray to study binding of heparan sulfate and sialic acid. The study suggests that heparin sulfate stabilises the S protein trimer and promotes the binding of the S protein to ACE2.
PAPER
SUMMARY
The work measured cryo-EM structures of the S protein and in complex with a 9-O-acetylated sialic acid. Free 9-O-Ac-Me-Sia does not trigger membrane fusion and is dependent on multivalent interaction.
PAPER
SUMMARY
MD simulation of S protein glycoforms to deteremine the role of glycosylation in adaptive immune response. Antigenicity of the S-protein was found to be insensitive to glycan microheterogeneity.
PAPER
SUMMARY
Efficient binding of SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2. The study revealed a furin cleavage site between S1/S2 subunits which may contribute to expanded tropism of the virus. SARS-CoV polyclonal antibodies inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells providing an outline for the design of vaccines and inhibitors.
PAPER
SUMMARY
The aim of the work was to look at the interaction between mannose binding lectin (MBL) and SARS-CoV. MBL was found to selectively bind to SARS S protein but did not affect interaction between ACE2.
PAPER
SUMMARY
Correspondence to the Lancet from the COVID-19 MS coalition (link) to accurately determine prognostic/diagnostic markers using serological assays. Multi-omic profiling will allow the identification of key biomarkers to help elucidate mechanism of action. Current methodologies does not factor in the spike glycoprotein and its conformational changes that is critical in immunogenic response.
PAPER
SUMMARY
Blood group antigens are traits that are inherited by individuals. They are diverse across the population and differences in the blood type can affect susceptibility to infections. An epidemiological study in the 2002/3 outbreak revealed individuals with group A, B, AB were more susceptible to SARS-CoV infection with O group individuals more resistant.
PAPER
SUMMARY
The spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 was used to generate the vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) which was immunogenic in mice. A single vaccination in rhesus macaque elicited both humoural and cellular immune responses.
PAPER
SUMMARY
This study explored the binding profile of the SARS-CoV-2 glycoprotein against a panel of carbohydrate binding proteins involved in immune responses. Binding was observed in C-type lectins, different siglecs and to glyconjugates expressed by bacteria in the lung microbiota.
PAPER
SUMMARY
Early epidemiological studies have shown age to be a critical factor in disease severity. Pre-existing conditions such as diabetes, CVD and hypertension all involving a glycan component is associated with increased mortality. Environmental factors through epigenetic can significantly alter glycan composition and alter biological age. This could serve as a biomarker for COVID-19 risk and mortality.
PAPER
SUMMARY
The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein possesses 22 N-linked glycosylation sites. Detail structural study has revealed a further 2 O-glycosylation site with core-1 mucin type O-glycans.
PAPER
SUMMARY
The highly glycosylated coronavirus spike protein selectively binds to the receptor of ACE2. Epidemiological analysis in a hospital in Hong Kong revealed blood group O associated with a low risk of infection. The study investigated whether natural antibodies of the ABO system can be used to effectively block binding site of the S glycoprotein of SARS-CoV. It was observed that anti-A antibodies inhibited adhesion between S glycoprotein and ACE2 receptor, indicating these antibodies may block interaction between the virus and receptor.
PAPER
SUMMARY
Miglustat, an iminosugar used in the treatment of rare genetic lysosome storage disease was repurposed to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 propagation. The drug inhibits the alpha-glucosidase enzyme involved in glycoprotein processing leading to a decrease of the viral spike protein.
PAPER
SUMMARY
The endoplasmic reticulum is a key machinery used by viruses to produce correctly folded glycoproteins. Iminosugars with glucose stereochemistry are excellent inhibitors of glucosidases which are involved protein folding and stability. Inhibition leads to glycoprotein misfolding and preventing viral replication.
PAPER
SUMMARY
The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein mediates the binding to the ACE2 receptor and is one of the main target for developing immunization strategies. The spike protein is O-glycosylated on a threonine at position 678 near the furin cleavage site with 8 additional O-glycosylation sites. The team also identified LacdiNAc and polyLacNAc structures on the spike protein.
PAPER
SUMMARY
In humans, the ability to produce the glycan with terminal Alpha-gal moiety has led to the development of a protective response against this antigen in humans. The alpha-Gal structure is prevalent in pathogenic viruses and other organisms which elicits a humoural immune response utilizing IgM/IgG antibodies. The researchers postulate that immune response to alpha-Gal can mediate COVID-19 severity. The authors conclude that inhibition of the alpha-Gal induced immune response can lead to increased viremia and disease severity. Supply of alpha-Gal probiotics may reduce severity of COVID-19.
PAPER
SUMMARY
The team modelled a fully glycosylated SARS-CoV-2 spike protein starting from the PDB structure. 22 N-glycans and 1 O-glycan was modelled in using Glycan Reader & Modeller in CHARMM-GUI. All structures are freely available online and can be used in the development of treatments.
PAPER
SUMMARY
Docking studies have shown that putative heparin/heparan sulfate binding site is adjacent to the ACE2 binding domain. In vitro studies show that binding of ACE2 and heparin occurs independently. This supports a model where SARS-CoV-2 infection occurs through a complex between heparan sulfate and ACE2.
PAPER
SUMMARY
The team pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 SGP on a third generation lentiviral (pLV) vector and tested the impact of various sulfated polysaccharides on transduction efficiency in mammalian cells. Various sulfated polysaccharides potently neutralized pLV-S pseudotyped virus with clear structure-based differences in anti-viral activity and affinity to SGP.
CarboMet - COVID-19 Research

CarboMet Toolbox - COVID-19

The newly updated CarboMet toolbox highlights key research centres in Europe that is working on developing tools and therapeutics in the fight against COVID-19.

The link below will take you to the toolbox where you can search for academic groups and companies working in COVID-19 with a short description of the research.

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European Union flag This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 737395.